Thursday, March 10, 2016

Kotappakonda Temple


History of Kotappakonda Temple

Kotappakonda is a holy hill, situated in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is famous for the temple of Lord Siva which is constructed on it with a stairway of about 1000 steps. The hill appears with three peaks in any direction, "These three peaks are known as Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra" so also called Trikutadri. It has four temples, one at the base, the other at an elevation of 600 feet (180 m). The main temple is at a height of 1,500 feet (460 m). The village situated at the foot of the hill is named after Kotappakonda and is called Kotappakonda village.

Transport to Kotappakonda Temple

Kotappakonda town can be reached by bus from Guntur or Narasaraopet or Chilakaluripet. After reaching the town, temple can be reached by footsteps or by bus.

From Narasaraopet --> Kotappakonda (11 km)
From Chilakaluripet--> Kotappakonda (15 km)
From Guntur-->Narasaropet --> Kotappakonda
From Amaravathi --> Sattenapalli--> Narasaraopet --> Kotappakonda

Celebration on Maha Sivaratri

A very big fair is held on the eve of Maha Sivaratri every year and more than 7 lakh people throng this temple. This is called Kotayya thirunalla or Kotappakonda thirunalla.

Devotees from surrounding villages and towns like Kavuru(200 years History in kotappakonda), Ameenasahebpalem, Narasarao Pet, Appapuram, uppalapadu,guravayapallem Kammavari Palem,Peda Gottipdau, Purushothapatnam, Yadavalli, Chavitipalem,pothavaram,murikipudi,boppudi, etc. build bamboo frames decorated with colour papers and lights called prabhalu.
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Tuesday, February 9, 2016

Murudeshwar Temple

Murdeshwar is a town in Bhatkal Taluk of Uttara Kannada district in the state of Karnataka, India. Murdeshwar is another name of the Hindu god Shiva. Famous for the world's second-tallest Shiva statue, the town lies on the coast of the Arabian Sea and is also famous for the Murdeshwar Temple. Murdeshwar has a railway station on the Mangalore-Mumbai Konkan railway route.

Lord Shiva

Murudeshwar Gopuram 

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Friday, January 11, 2013

Kali Matha Photo Gallery


Main Kali Matha Photo in Calcutta

Kali Matha Main Temple in Kali Ghat Calcutta

Dakshineswar Kali Temple

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Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Sri Devi Kadgamalarchana Seva in Durga Temple Vijayawada


Sri Devi Kadgamalarchana Seva in Durga Temple Vijayawada

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Saturday, September 29, 2012

Om Sri Suryanarayana Swamy Vari Devasthanam Arasavalli - Srikakulam

This is inform to all, coming 1st, 2nd, 3rd October 2012 are very power full days. sun raise fall on the god.
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Friday, April 13, 2012

Lord Shiva with Jyotirlinga Album

Lord Shiva With Jyotirlinga
Lord Shiva With Jyotirlinga

Mahasivaratri Picures Lord ShivaMahasivaratri Picures Lord Shiva

Lord Shiva Photo Lord Shiva Photo

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Saturday, March 24, 2012

Madhurai Meenakshi Temple Gallery

Madhurai Meenakshi Ammavaru Temple in Madhurai
Madhurai Meenakshi Ammavaru Temple in Madhurai

Madhurai Meenakshi Gopurum in Madhurai
Madhurai Meenakshi Gopurum in Madhurai

Madurai Meenakshi Temple in Madhurai
Madurai Meenakshi Temple in Madhurai
Madhurai Meenakshi Temple Inside in Madhurai
Madhurai Meenakshi Temple Inside in Madhurai
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Monday, March 19, 2012

Lord Shiva Gallery

Lord Shiva at Jharkhand
Lord Shiva at Jharkhand

Lord Shiva
Lord Shiva
Lord Shiva at Haridwar
Lord Shiva at Haridwar
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Sunday, March 11, 2012

History of karnataka

Karnataka Symbol
Karnataka Symbol

Karnataka has a hoary past. It is blessed with innumerable inscriptions, memorial stones and monuments of rich historical and cultural heritage. It has many sites of Pre-historic period and most of them are found scattered in the river valleys of Krishna, Bhima, Cauvery, Malaprabha, Ghataprabha, Hemavathi, Tungabhadra, Manjra, Netravati and their tributaries. The Prehistoric culture of Karnataka viz., the Hand-axe culture, compares favourably with the one that existed in Africa and is quite distinct from the Pre-historic culture of North India. Places like Hunasagi, Budihal, Piklihal, Kibbanahalli, Nittur, Anagavadi, Khyad, Nyamati, Balehonnur and Uppinangadi (Lower Palaeolithic) ; Herakal, Tamminahal, Savalgi, Salvadgi, Menasagi, Pattadakal, Vajjala and Talakad (Middle Palaeolithic); Kovalli, Ingaleshvara, Yadwad and Maralabhavi (Upper Palaeolithic); Begaumpur, Vanamapurahalli, Hingani, Ingaleshwara, Tamminahal, Sringeri, Jalahalli, Kibbanahalli, Sanganakal and
Doddaguni (Mesolithic); Maski, T. Narasipur, Banahalli, Hallur, Sanganakal, Hemmige, Brahmagiri and Uttanur (Neolithic-Chalcolithic); Rajana Kolur, Bachigudda, Aihole, Konnur, Terdal, Kumaranahalli, Tadakanahalli, Maski, Banahalli and Hallingali (Megalithic) are some of the important Pre-historic sites of Karnataka . The ragi grain is found commonly in Pre-historic sites of Africa and Karnataka . The early inhabitants of Karnataka knew the use of iron, far earlier than the North and iron weapons dating back to circa 1500 B.C have been found at Hallur, now in Hirekerur Tq. of Haveri district.

Parts of Karnataka were subject to the rule of the Nandas and the Mauryas. Maurya Chandragupta (either Chandragupta I Ashoka’s Grand Father or Samprati Chandragupta, Ashoka’s grandson) is believed to have visited Shravanabelgola and spent his last years there. Fourteen Ashokan (10 minor and 4 major) Rock Edicts found in Karnataka (two each at Nittur and Udagolam in Bellary district; one at Maski in Raichur district; one each at Gavimutt and Palkigundu in Koppal district; one each at Brahmagiri, Jattinga Rameshwara and Siddapura in Chitradurga district; and four at Sannati in Gulbarga district) testify to the extent of the Mauryan Empire. It is interesting to note that, Emperor Ashoka’s name occur for the first time in his Maski minor rock edict wherein, his familiar epithet “Devanampiya Piyadasi” is accompanied with his personal name Ashoka. Hence his Maski edict has a unique place among all his royal edicts.

The Shatavahanas(circa 30 B.C to 230 A.D.) of Paithan have also ruled over extensive areas in Northern arnataka; some scholars even argue that this dynasty hailed from Karnataka , as in early times, Dharwad and Bellary districts were called Satavahanihara (or the satavahana region). Some of their rulers were called kings of Kuntala. At Sannati in Gulbarga district, Vadgaon- Madhavpur near Belgaum and Brahmagiri in hitradurga district, remains of their period have been found. Banavasi in Uttara Kannada has an inscription of their queen, and at Vasana in Nargund Tq. remains of a brick temple of Shaiva order are noticed. Sannati had many Buddhist Stupas of their times covered with sculptures on them. Later, Karnataka fell into the hands of the Pallavas of Kanchi and the Chutu Satakarnis, the Shatavahana feudatories, ruling from Banavasi after the fall of the Shatavahanas, also seem to have accepted the overlordship of the Pallavas. Pallava domination was ended by two indigenous dynasties, namely the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas of Talakad, who divided Karnataka between themselves. Bird’s eye view

A bird’s eye view of Karnataka ’s political history can be presented here onwards. The Gangas and the Kadambas ruling from c.345 A.D; the Chalukyas of Badami in Bagalkot district (c.540 to 753 A.D) overthrowing the Kadambas and subjugating the Gangas; the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from Gulbarga district (753 to 973 A.D) succeeding the Badami Chalukyas, and they in turn overthrown by the Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 to 1189A.D), ruling from modern Basava Kalyana, in Bidar district. The Gangas who continued in the Southern parts, earlier as sovereign rulers (350 to 550 A. D) and later as allies or feudatories of either Badami or Malkhed rulers till 1004 A.D., paved way for the Chola rule when their territory viz., Gangawadi (Southern Karnataka ) was occupied by the Cholas. The Cholas who dominated over Southern Karnataka from about 1004 A.D. were overthrown by Hoysala Vishnuvardhana in 1114 A.D.

During the Kalyana Chalukya rule came the Kalachuri Interregnum (1162- 1184). The Kalyana Chalukyas were overshadowed by their feudatories, viz.,the Sevunas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra, who divided Karnataka between themselves; when the armies of the Delhi Sultan overthrew these two dynasties, the Vijayanagara Empire (1336) and the Bahamani Sultanate (1347) came to rule over Karnataka , and the former had control over the greater part of Karnataka . Of the five Shahi Sultanates which succeeded the Bahamanis, the Adilshahis of Bijapur (1489-1686) and the Baridshahis of Bidar (1504- 1619), who held sway over northern parts of Karnataka and at a later stage, the former dynasty overthrew the latter. The city of Vijayanagara was captured by combined Shahi forces in 1565, and the capital of the empire was first shifted to Penugonda (1565) and later, to Chandragiri (Andhra Pradesh) and Vellore, beyond the frontiers of Karnataka . It continued as capital till 1646.

Of the successors of Vijayanagar in Karnataka , among their numerous feudatories, the Mysore Odeyars, Chitradurga Palegars, Magadi Palegars and the Keladi Nayakas were the most important. The northern regions were under the control of the Adilshahis of Bijapur till 1686, when they were overthrown by the Mughals. With the weakening of the Mughal power in the North, the Marathas came to have control over northern districts of Karnataka . Haidar Ali, who usurped power from the Odeyars of Mysore in 1761, captured the Keladi and Chitradurga Kingdoms in 1763 and 1779 respectively. Karnataka came under British rule immediately after the overthrow of Tipu, Haidar’s son in 1799 and the Marathas in 1818 (when the Peshwa was defeated). But after having been subjected to a number of administrations during the British rule and witnessed active participation in the freedom struggle for Self rule, it became a single State in 1956 and in 1973 it was renamed as ‘Karnataka ’.

Kadambas of Banavasi (C.345-C.540)
The Kadamba Dyanasty was founded by Mayuravarma, son of Bandhushena in c. 345 A.D. He was a Brahmin student from the celebrated Talagunda Agrahara (an Agrahara is a settlement of scholarly brahmins, engaged in religious and academic pursuits) from Shimoga district. He had gone with his grand father Veerasharma to the Ghatika of Kanchi for higher studies. Subjected to some kind of humiliation at the Pallava capital Kandi, this young brahmin gave up his hereditary priestly vocation and took to the life of a warrior and revolted against the Pallavas. The Pallavas were forced to recognise him as a sovereign, when he crowned himself at Banavasi in Uttara Kannada district. His Chandravalli inscription speaks about the construction of a tank at Chandravalli. One of his successors, Kakustha Varman (c. 435-55) was such a powerful ruler that even the Vakatakas and the Guptas cultivated marital relationship with this family during his time. The great poet Kalidasa seems to have visited his court.

The first Kannada record found at Halmidi (450 A.D.) in Belur Taluk, Hassan district), was issued by this dynasty. The Kadambas built fine temples and bastis and the Kadamba Nagara style Shikharas is their contribution. They also created first rock-cut shrines of Vedic tradition at Aravalem (in Goa which was under their control) in a laterite hill range. The tanks at Chandravalli and Gudnapur are among the many irrigation tanks they built. They had Lion as their royal insignia. They were overthrown by the Chalukyas of Badami in c. 540 and at later stages, two branches of the family (one from Hanagal and the other from Goa) ruled during medieval period, as subordinates of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. A branch of the Kadambas was also ruling from Orissa as subordinates of the Gangas of Kalinga.
Gangas of Talakad (C.350-C.1024) The Gangas seems to have started their rule in c. 350 from Kolar and later their capital is said to have been shifted to Talakad (Mysore district). Elephant was their royal insignia. Till the advent of the Badami Chalukyas, they were almost a sovereign power. Many Ganga princes were not only scholars and writers, but also great patrons of scholarship. Later they continued to rule over Gangavadi (which comprised major parts of South Karnataka ) till the close of 10th century as subordinates of the Badami Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. It is the Gangas who withstood the onslaught of the Pallavas and the Cholas,
who tried to subjugate South Karnataka . Durvinita (c.529-579) was one of the great kings of this dynasty. He, being a scholar wrote both in Kannada and Sanskrit. The Sanskrit poet Bharavi is said to have lived in his court for some time. The ancient Punnata Kingdom (the modern Heggadadevanakote taluk region) was merged in his Kingdom. His great grandson Bhuvikrama (c.654-79) was a strong ally of the Chalukyas, and at the Battle of Vilande (c.670) which was fought between the Chalukyas and the Pallavas, he helped the former to gain victory over Pallava Parameshwara Varman and snatching as a war trophy, the Pallava ruler’s necklace called Ugrodaya for himself. Mankunda in Channapatna taluk is said to have been his royal residence for sometime.

A later prince of this family, Sripurusha (c.725-88) was not only a strong ally of the Chalukyas, but also resisted the Rashtrakutas who tried to subdue him, after the overthrow of the Chalukyas of Badami by them in 753. Sripurusha, as a Chalukyan ally killed Pallava Nandi Varman II at Vilande in 731 and assumed the Pallava ruler’s title Permanadi. This great ruler also wrote a Sanskrit work Gajashasthra, a treatise on elephants. He shifted his capital to Manne (Manyapura) in Nelamangala Tq. His son Shivamara II (788- 816) and grandson Rachamalla I (816-53) continued to resist Rashtrakuta power. In the end, Rashtrakuta Amoghavarsha Nrupatunga I (814-78) sought reconciliation with the Gangas by marrying his daughters to the Ganga princes. At a later date, when the Cholas became strong, the Ganga king Butuga II (938-61) allied himself with the Rashtrakutas against the Cholas, and helped Rashtrakuta Krishna III (939-67) to humiliate the Cholas by killing the Chola
crown prince Rajaditya in the battle held at Takkolam (949) as elucidated in Atkur inscription, a unique memorial stone erected to commemorate the demise of Kali, a hound, while fighting against a wild boar, now displayed in the Bangalore Visveswaraya museum. Finally their territory came to be subdued by the Cholas in 1004, and thus the Ganga rule ended. A branch of the Gangas ruled from Orissa from 496 A.D. and became celebrated in history as the Eastern or the Kalinga Gangas. Among their feudatories, the Nalambas played a vital role in the regional politics in accordance with the political vicissitudes of the day. Gangas dotted the country with many tanks. Kolar, said to be the core country of their initial rule, and Mysore district have many irrigational sources of their times. Their fine temples are seen at Kolar, Talakad, Begur, Nagavara, Gangavara, Nandi, Aretippur and Narasamangala. The last named has wonderful stucco figures of remarkable beauty. They also built Jaina bastis at Kambadahalli and Shravanabelagola. The Gommata monolith at the last named place, 58ft. in height is the creation of their minister Chavundaraya in c. 982 A.D.

Chalukyas of Badami (C. 540-757)
It is the Chalukyas of Badami who brought the whole of Karnataka under a single rule. They are also remembered for their contributions in the field of art. Their monuments are concentrated at Badami, Nagaral, Aihole, Pattadakal, old and new Mahakuta in Karnataka and at Alampur, Gadwal, Satyavolal and Bichavolu in Andhra Pradesh. They are both rock-cut and structural, with wonderful sculptures wrought in hard red sandstone. Their Shiggaon copper plates, speaks of 14 tanks in Haveri district. The first great prince of the dynasty was Pulikeshi I (c. 540-66 A.D) who built the great fort of Badami and performed Ashwamedha Yaga (horse sacrifice) as elucidated in his Badami cliff inscription of 543 AD, so far the earliest saka dated (Saka 465) inscription of Karnataka , after subduing many rulers including the Kadambas. His grandson, Pulikeshin II (c.608-42) built a vast empire which extended from the Narmada in the north, to the Cauvery, in the south. In the east, he overthrew the Vishnukundins and appointed his younger brother Vishnuvardhana, as the Viceroy of Vengi. This prince founded the Eastern Chalukya Dynasty which ruled for five centuries in Andhra. (A later prince of this Vengi line, Kulottunga, even succeeded to the Chola throne in 1070). Harsha of Kanauj was defeated by Pulikeshin II. The Chalukyan army has been called ‘Karnatabala’ and described as invincible in contemporary inscriptions. He exchanged embassies with Persia and the Chinese piligrim Hiuen Tsiang visited his court. Ultimately, the Pallavas conquered Badami in c. 642 A.D. after defeating Pulikeshin II’s army. Later his son Vikramaditya I (655-81} reconquered the Chalukyan capital and reorganised his father’s empire and restored the fame of their army ‘Karnadbala’ as ‘invincible’ The representative carving of a measuring rod of 18 spans of his period found at Kurugodu in Bellary Taluk an unique example is even now visible.

Vikramaditya I’s son Vinayaditya (681-96) defeated the ruler of Kanauj, who claimed to be the paramount lord of the North (Sakalottarapathanatha). He even sent an expedition to Cambodia. He was succeeded by Vijayaditya (696-733). The Arabs who had conquered Sindh (711) under the leadership of Mohamed Khasim, tried to make inroads into the Deccan. They were defeated by the Chalukya feudatory in South Gujarat called Avanijashraya Pulikeshin in 739. The Arabs were forced to leave Sindh after this defeat. The Chalukyan empire included not only the whole of Karnataka and Maharashtra, but the greater part of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra, and also parts of Orissa and Tamilnadu. Vikramaditya II (733-744) in the line, defeated the Pallavas and entered the Pallava capital Kanchi victorious. But he did not loot Kanchi as the Pallavas had done at Badami in 642. Instead after inspecting its Jewels and Treasure, he redonated them to the Rajasimheshwara temple of Kanchi, as elucidated in a kannada inscription found carved on one of the pillars of the above said temple of Kanchi. His queens Lokamahadevi and Trailokyamahadevi built the Virupaksha and Mallikarjuna temples at Pattadakal to commemorate this victory. But the Chalukyan power was weakened in the long run by its frequent wars with the Pallavas.

Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (C.753-973)
In 753, Dantidurga, the Rashtrakuta feudatory of the Chalukyas, overthrew the Chalukyan king Keerthivarman II and his family inherited the fortunes of the Chalukyas. He claims that he did this by defeating the ‘Karnatabala’ of the Chalukyas, described as ‘invincible’ in those days. We owe the engraving of the celebrated monolithic Kailasa temple at Ellora (now in Maharashtra) to Dantidurga’s uncle, Krishna I (756-74). Krishna’s son, Dhruva (780-93) crossed the Narmada, and after defeating the celebrated princes like Vathsaraja of the Gurjara Prathihara family Dharmapala, the Gouda King of Bengal and extracted tribute from the ruler of Kanauj, ‘the seat of India’s Paramountcy’. His son Govinda III (793-814) also repeated the feat when he defeated Nagabhata II, the Gurjara Prathihara and Dharmapala of Bengal and again extracted tribute from the king of Kanauj. His ‘horses drank the icy liquid bubbling in the Himalayas’ says a record, testifying to his victorious march in the North. The achievements of the Chalukyas of Badami and Rashatrakutas by defeating the rulers of Kanauj have made the name of their era the “Age of Imperial Kanauj”, a misnomer. Instead it should be called the “Age of Imperial Karnataka ”.

Amoghavarsha Nripatunga (814-78) son of Govinda III, had to face the threat of the Eastern (Vengi) Chalukyas, who challenged his very existence. But he succeeded in subduing them after defeating Vengi Chalukya Vijayaditya II at Vinagavalli. He was a peace-loving monarch who used matrimony as one of the weapons in diplomacy. Although he killed as many as six contemporary political potentates who created trouble for him, he did not conduct Digvijayas like his father and grandfather. He succeeded in maintaining the Empire intact. Himself a scholar, Amoghavarsha patronized scholarship and great Jaina savants like Veerasena, Jinasena, Gunabhadra, grammarian Shaktayana and Mathematician Mahaveera adorned his court. Adipurana and commentaries on the Shatkhandagamas called as Dhavala, Jayadhavala and Mahadhavala written in his court were the great Jaina works of all India importance. Kavirajamarga, the first extant Kannada work is of his times composed by his court poet Srivijaya in C. 850 A.D. His great grandson Indra III (914-29) even captured Kanauj and held it under his control for two years. One of his feudatories, Arikesari of Vemulavada patronised Sanskrit writer Somadeva (of Yashastilaka fame) and the famous Kannada poet Pampa.

Rashtrakuta Krishna III (936-67) subdued the Cholas in the South and established a pillar of victory at Rameshwaram. In fact the so-called ‘Age of Imperial Kanauj’ was the Age of Imperial Karnataka , when the prowess of the Kannadiga was felt all over India. Even Rajashekhara, the celebrated Sanskrit writer, has called the Karnatas as great experts in the techniques of war. Soldiers from Karnataka were employed by the Palas of Bengal. One such Kannada warrior founded the Sena Dynasty of Bengal and the other Karnata Dynasty of Mithila (modern Tirhath in Bihar). The Rashtrakutas sponsored the engraving of many Hindu rock-cut temples on the Buddhist model like the Dashavatara Shrine at Ellora, the Jogeshwara near Bombay and the one at the Elephanta Island. (Some scholars ascribe the last named to their Kalachuri feudatories). Arab traveller Suleiman tell us that the Rashtrakuta Empire was the largest in India and he ranks it with greatest Empires of the world namely the Eastern Roman, the Arabic and the Chinese Empires. He visited India in 851 A.D. The Rashtrakutas constructed many tanks and their temples are found at places like Sirivala, Sulepet, Gadikeshwar, Adaki, Sedam, Handarki etc., in Gulbarga district; Naragund, Ron and Savadi in Gadag district and at Hampi also. These two dynasties viz., the Chalukyas of Badami and the Rashtrakutas popularised animal husbandry by donating cows in thousands. The stones commemorating such grants (gosasakallu) are seen all over.

Chalukyas of Kalyana (C.973-1189)
The Chalukyas of Kalyana who claim to be the scions of the Badami Chalukyas, overthrew the Rashtrakutas in 973, and Taila II (Trailokya Malla), the first ruler of the dynasty, later defeated the Chola rulers like Uttama and Rajaraja I, and even killed Paramara Munja of Dhara. His son Satyashraya (997-1008) patronised the great Kannada poet Ranna. Someshwara I (1043- 1068), Satyashrya’s grand nephew, succeeded in resisting the efforts of the Cholas to subdue Karnataka , and Kalyana made his new capital (modern Basava Kalyana in Bidar district). The Chola king Rajadhiraja was killed by him at Kuppam in 1054.

His son Vikramaditya VI (1076-1127) proudly called as the Lord of more than 1000 inscriptions, is the king who started the Vikrama Saka Samvatsara on his coronation, celebrated in history as the patron of the great jurist Vighnaneshwara, who wrote Mithakshara, a standard work on Hindu law, and the emperor has been immortalised by poet Bilhana (hailing from Kashmir) who chose his patron as the hero for his Sanskrit work, Vikramankadeva Charitam. Vikramaditya defeated the Paramaras of Central India thrice and once even plundered their capital Dhara. In the South he captured Kanchi from the Cholas in 1085, and in the East, he conquered Vengi in 1093. One of his commander Mahadeva built the Mahadeva temple at Itagi (Koppal district) one of the finest Chalukyan monument, eulogised in their inscription as “Devalaya hakravarthy” (Emperor of Temples) His son Someshwara III (1127- 39) was a great scholar. He has compiled Manasollasa, a Sanskrit encyclopaedia and Vikramankabhyudayam, a poem for which his father is the hero. Manasollasa, a great work of multi-dimensions, which depicts the cultural conditions in South India, has sections on administration, medicine, architecture, painting, jewellery, cookery, dance, music, sports etc. It has 100 sections discussing various aspects of human activity.

The Kalachuris, who were the feudatories of the Chalukyas, overthrew the Chalukyas and captured Kalyana in 1162. Bijjala, the first emperor of the dynasty, was the grand son of Vikramaditya VI, through his motherside. He had Basaveshwara, the celebrated religious leader, as his treasurer. Though the Chalukyas staged a comeback in 1184 under Someshwara IV, their power was overshadowed by their feudatories, the Hoysalas and the Sevunas of Devagiri, who encroached upon the Chalukyan territory, and finally divided Karnataka between themselves. The Chalukyas were great builders, and their beautiful temples renowned for fine and intricate engravings are found at many places like Itagi in Yelburga taluk, Gadag, Dambal, Lakkundi (Gadag District), Balligavi (Shimoga District), Kuruvatti, Chaudadanapura (Ranebennur Taluk), Unakal in Hubli Taluk and at Nagavi, Adki, Yewur, Sedam, Kulageri, Kollur, Diggavi, Madiyala and Kalagi (in Gulbarga Dt); Kadlewada, Chattaraki, Teradal, Nimbala, Muttagi etc. in Bijapur district. They were great patrons of scholars, and Sanskrit writers like Vadiraja and Kannada poets like Ranna, Durgasimha and Nayasena lived in their times. The Virashaiva movement saw the advent of Vachana literature in Kannada, initiated by Jedara Dasimayya and Kembhavi Bhoganna. It grew during the Kalachuri Interregnum when Basava, Allama, Siddarama, Channabasava, Akkamahadevi and others lived. Virashaivism preached equality of men, tried to emancipate women, and stressed the importance of bread-labour concept by calling it ‘Kayaka’, as the means of worshipping God.

Sevunas of Devagiri (C 1173-1325)
The Sevunas (Yadavas) who were the feudatories of both the Rastrakutas and the Chalukyas of Kalyana, became a sovereign power from the days of Bhillama V (1173-92) who founded the new capital Devagiri (modern Daulathabad in Maharashtra). Earlier they ruled from Sindhinera (modern Sinnar) near Nashik. Bhillama V captured Kalyana in 1186, and later clashed with Hoysala Ballala II at Soraturu in 1190. Though he lost the battle, he built a vast kingdom extending from the Narmada to the Krishna. His son Jaitugi (1192-99) not only defeated Paramara Subhata Varman, but also killed Rudra and Mahadeva, the Kakatiya kings of Warangal.

Singhana II (1199-1247), the greatest of the Sevunas, extended the Sevuna kingdom upto the Tungabhadra. But the Sevunas were defeated by the army of Delhi Sultan in 1296, again in 1307 and finally in 1318, and thus the kingdom was wiped out. The Sevunas have become immortal in history by the writings of the famous mathematician Bhaskaracharya, the great writer on music Sharngadeva, and of the celebrated scholar Hemadri. The Sevunas and the Hoysalas drained their energy in mutual warfare, and thus the south could be easily subdued by the armies of the Delhi Sultan. Sharngadeva’s work, Sangita Ratnakara, is the basis for the growth of classical music and Vidyaranya during the 14th century wrote ‘Sangitasara’ based on Sangita Ratnakara. The Sevunas built fine temples called Hemadpanthi structures which are found all over Maharashtra. The Virabhadra temple at Yedur in Belgum district is one of their structures. They renovated many temples in North Karnataka .

Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra (C.1052-1342)
The Hoysalas continued the great tradition of their art-loving overlords, viz., the Kalyana Chalukyas, and their fine temples are found at Beluru, Halebidu and manathapura. The first great ruler of the dynasty, Vishnuvardhana (c.1108-1152) freed Gangavadi from the Cholas (who had held it from 1004), and in ommemoration of his victory, built the celebrated Vijayanarayana (Chennakeshava) Temple at Belur, His kingdom was visited by Ramanujacharya, who stayed at Saligrama, Tonnur, Melkote and other places in Karnataka for long. Vishnuvardhana patronised the saint and although he embraced Srivaishnavism, his family religion remained Jainism. He had been earlier influenced by Srivaishnava Chola officers in Gangavadi. As he wanted to be an Emperor by challenging his overlords, the Kalyana Chalukyas
expediency forced him to perform certain Vedic rituals like Agnishtoma and Hiranyagarbha sacrifices (yajnyas). Jainism did not sanction such performances. But he continued to patronise Jainism, as many of his commanders and his accomplished queen Shantala were Jains. His commander Ketamalla built the famous Hoysaleshwara (Vishnuvardhana) temple at Halebidu. The Agraharas in Karnataka which were numerous by then had created such a healthy intellectual atmosphere that Basaveshwara, a rebel against Vedic tradition, was the illustrious son of Madarasa, the head of Bagewadi Agrahara; and Ramanuja, the great preacher of Srivaishnavism from Tamilnadu could get a hearing to his teachings from the intellectuals in Karnataka , which was denied to him in his own native country. Even his life was under threat there.

Though Vishnuvardhana did not fully succeed in his serious effort to overthrow the Chalukyan yoke, his grandson Ballala II (1173-1220) not only became free, but even defeated Sevuna Bhillama V at Soraturu in 1190, after having defeated Chalukya Someshwara IV in 1187. When the Cholas were attacked by the Pandyas in Tamilnadu, Ballala II drove the Pandyas back and thus assumed the title “Establisher of the Chola kingdom”. Later, in the days of his son Narasimha II (1220-35), Hoysalas even secured a foothold in Tamilnadu and Kuppam near Srirangam became a second capital of the Hoysalas. As a consequence, the empire was divided among his two sons and the collateral branch continued for over six decades.

Ballala III (1291-1343), the last great Hoysala, had to struggle hard to hold his own against the invasions of the Delhi Sultan. He died fighting against the Sultan of Madhurai. It was his commanders Harihara and Bukka, who founded the Vijayanagara Kindgom, which later grew to be an Empire. Hoysala age saw great Kannada poets like Rudrabhatta, Janna, Harihara and Raghavanka. Hoysala temples at Beluru, Halebidu, Somanathapur, Aralaguppe, Arasikere, Amritapura, Basaral, Kikkeri, Hosaholalu, Tonnur, Sunka Tonnur, indhaghatta, Shravanabelagola, Koravangala, Govindanahalli, Nuggehalli,Javagal, Kaivara, Turuvekere, Kaidala etc., are onderful works of art.

Vijayanagara Empire (C.1336-1646)
When the armies of the Delhi Sultan destroyed the four great Kingdoms of the south viz., the Sevunas, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Hoysalas and the Pandyas of Madhurai, it looked as if a political power following a religion quite alien to the South was going to dominate the peninsula. Many princes including

Kumara Rama, the brave and heroic son of Kampilaraya, a feudatory from Kampli in Bellary district, perished while resisting the muslim onslaughts. The people were
bewildered over the attack on their religious places and the barbaric crudities perpetrated on the vanquished cities by these invaders from the North. Poems and allads on Kumara Rama illustrate this bewilderment. When the Vijayanagara kingdom was founded by the Sangama brothers, people whole-heartedly supported them. Tradition says that sage Vidyaranya had even caused a shower of gold to finance the Sangama brothers. Perhaps the sage succeeded in securing financial help from various quarters to the founders of Vijayanagara. To Vidyaranya’s guru Bharatiteertha, Harihara and his brothers made some grants at Sringeri in 1346. This grant had a supplementary donation on the same day by Hoysala Queen Krishnayi Tayi, who appears to have been present on the occasion. Harihara of the Sangama dynasty (1336-1485) founded the kingdom in about 1336 and secured control over northern parts of Karnataka and Andhra from coast to coast. After the death of Ballala III (1343) and his son Virupaksha Ballala in 1346, the whole of the Hoysala dominion came under his control. The above grant noted at Sringeri with the oysala queen, and the kingdom glorifying Kumara Rama, demonstrates its efforts as successors of these potentates that had perished. His brother Bukka (1356-77) ucceeded in destroying the Madhurai Sultanate: He even sent an embassy to China. It is this prince who sponsored the writings of the monumental commentary on the Vedas viz., Vedarthaprakasha by engaging several scholars, working under the celebrated scholars Sayana and Madhava. The work was completed in the days of his son Harihara II (1377-1404).

Harihara II extended his domination in Konkana, beyond Goa upto Chaul. In the East, he conquered Pangal to the north of the Krishna. Efforts made by Firuzshah Bahmani to conquer this fort were foiled by Devaraya II (1424- 49), the greatest of the Sangamas, who defeated the Bahamanis when he was the crown prince, and this resulted in the shifting of the Bahamani capital to the North i.e. Bidar in c. 1426. He defeated the Gajapatis of Orissa twice and foiled the efforts of the Bahamanis to wrest Mudgal. One of his commanders even invaded Ceylon and extracted tribute, and the princes of Pegu and Tenesserim in Burma also owed him allegiance. He highly patronized the Veerashaivas The Hazara Rama Temple at Hampi is his creation. Abdul Razak, the Persian traveller who visited to his court, says of the capital that “nothing
in the world could equal it.” Himself a scholar, Devaraya II patronized Gunda Dindima, a Sanskrit poet and Shrinatha, a Telugu poet.

The weak and vicious kings who followed Devaraya II in the Sangama dynasty would have caused the dismemberment of the empire, had not Saluva Narasimha, an able commander assumed power (1485). It paved way for the rule of Saluva dynasty(1485-1509) for a short while. Later, there was second usurpation, by the Tuluva Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529) the greatest emperor, a great warrior, scholar and administrator of Tuluva dynastry (1509-1542). He secured Raichur Doab in 1512, and later marched victorious into the capitals of his enemies like Bidar (1512) Bijapur (1523) and in the East, Cuttack (1518), the capital of the Gajapatis. “A great ruler and a man of great justice” (in the words of Portuguese visitor Paes) Krishnadevaraya was a man of letters and a great patron of scholars. He himself wrote a Telugu work Amuktamalyada.
He had eight great Telugu poets called ashtadiggqjas in his court, and among them was Allasani Peddana. He built the Krishnaswamy Temple in the capital. It was during his time that the Portuguese conquered Goa from Bijapur rulers in 1510. They had a flourishing trade with Vijayanagara, and to whom they supplied horses. Portuguese rule in Goa had far reaching effects. They introduced new floras like groundnut, chilly, tobacco etc., besides printing technology from the New World.

In the days of Sadashiva Raya Aravidu Ramaraya (1542-65), his minister or Krishnadevaraya’s son-in-law, the four Shahi Sultans attacked the Empire, and after killing Ramaraya at Rakkasa Thangadi (Rakkasagi-Tangadagi) in 1565, destroyed the capital Vijayanagara. Before that his brother Thirumalaraya and Venkatapatriya had shifted the capital first to Penugonda and later to Chandragiri and Vellore. The Tuluva rule was set aside by the Aravidu dynastry (1570-1646). Vijayanagara rulers patronized all religions. The Portuguese visitor Barbosa testifies to this catholic outlook of the emperors. Every existing temple was provided with a strong enclosure, a lofty tower at the entrance and vast mantapas. Literary activity in all South Indian languages was encouraged. The empire took upon itself the responsibility of conserving Indian traditions in philosophy, religion, science, and literature. Vijayanagara played a great role in conserving local religions and cultural tradition. In addition to the commentaries on the Vedas, Sayana compiled many works like Yajnyatantra Sudhanidhi, Ayurveda Sudhanidhi, Purushartha Sudhanidhi, Subhashita Sudhanidhi and Alankara Sudhanidhi to conserve Indian tradition. Madhava (Vidyaranya) wrote Sarvadarshana Sangraha introducing all religions of Indian
origin. His parashara madhaviya is a commentary on parasharasmriti, a work on Hindu life and law and Parashara Madhaviya has clearly stated that the Sati (suicide by a widow) is “kalivarjya”, to be abhorred totally in Kaliyuga.

he Emperors not only built fine temples of all denominations (Shaiva, Vaishnava, Srivaishnava, Jaina etc.,) but renovated many temples destroyed prior to their rule. All existing temples were provided with huge prakaras (enclosures) and tall impressive entrance towers called as rayagopuras found not only at Hampi but also at Srishailam, Kalahasti, Tirupathi, Srirangam, Chidambaram, Kanchi etc., In addition, they also provided the existing temples with vast and impressive Kalyana Mantapas or Sabha Mantapas which were open pillared pavilions. Each mantapa had scores of tall monolithic pillars which were solid pieces of art. These public works provided jobs to thousands. Their temples seen at places like Hampi, Haravu, Belluru, Kikkeri, Ambaligere, Holalkere, Sringeri, Kurugodu, Bagali, Khandya, Kalasa etc. are noteworthy. Sanskrit, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu literature flourished during this time. The Veerashaiva religion saw a renaissance. Karnataka Music came to blossom by the works of Vidyaranya, Kallinatha, Ramanamatya, Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa. Purandaradasa did a lot to popularise it by composing primary compositions to teach this music and he has been rightly called “the father of Karnataka Music” by saint Tyagaraja. Foreign merchants and travellers like
Nicolo Conti(1420), Abdul Razak (1443), Barbosa (1500-11), Paes (1520), Nuniz (1535), and Caesar Fredrick (1567), who visited the Empire give a vivid account
on the flourishing condition that prevailed in the empire in general and Vijayanagara in particular.

Bahamani Kingdom (c.1347-1520)
The Bahmani Sultans are remembered for the great contribution they made in the field of Indo-Saracenic art in the South. Founded by Alla-Ud-Din Hasan at Gulbarga in 1347, the Bahmani Kingdom clashed with Vijayanagara all through its history. Muhammed Bahaman Shah, who built the famous Jami Maszid at Gulbarga fort in 1367, is a huge monument of enduring beauty. Domes, vaultings and arches of mortar were introduced by them in their buildings of Karnataka .

Firuz Shah (1397-1422), was a great Sultan in the line and was the grandson of the founder. He extended the kingdom in the east by capturing Rajamahendri from the Reddis. He took pleasure in the society of learned men and patronized Surhindi, a scholar, and Hassan Gilani, an astronomer. He erected the observatory at Daulatabad.

Ahmed (1422-36), successor of Firuz shifted his capital to Bidar, where fine palaces came to be raised in course of time. The Solha Kamb Mosque is a fine creation of his time. He was highly devoted to Sufi saint Bande Nawaz. The prince himself was called ‘Vali’ (saint) and his tomb at Ashtur near Bidar is highly venerated.

Another great figure in Bahmani history is Mahamud Gawan, a great minister who was born in Persia (1411). On his visit to Bidar (1445) he was given an important position in the Bahamani court, and he was the chief administrator of the kingdom from 1461 till his death in 1481. He administered the territory during the minority of two Sultans, and extended it in the South upto Hubli, in the West upto Goa and the Konkan Coast, and in the East upto Kondavidu and Rajamahendri. A scholar and writer himself, he founded a college at Bidar and provided it with a library from his own personal income. The college building (Madrasa) is a fine structure. Gawan fell a victim to court intrigues and was ordered to be executed by Sultan Muhammad, whom Gawan had educated and brought up.With him vanished the glory of the Kingdom, and soon it broke up into five Shahi Kingdoms of the Deccan. The fine Indo- Saracenic buildings like the Bande Nawaz Dargah, Sath gumbaz, etc., at
Gulbarga, Gawan’s Madarasa at Bidar and his dome at Ashtur are the important contributions of this Sultanate.

Adilshahis of Bijapur (1489-1686)
Of the five Shahi Kingdoms that rose from the ruins of the Bahamanis, the Adilshahis of Bijapur ruled over the greater part of Karnataka . It was founded in 1489 by Yusuf Adil Khan, a commander and governor under the Bahamanis. The Adilshahis were great patrons of art and men of letters. Yusuf has been called “a powerful and prosperous king” by Varthema, the Italian Visitor. His son Ismail (1510-35) was recognised as a ruler by the Shah of Iran and he sent an embassy to Bijapur. Ismail’s grandson, Ali (1557-80) was in friendly terms with Ramaraya of Vijayanagara who had adopted Ali as his son. But other Shahi Sultans forced Ali to join the confederacy against the Vijayanagara Empire, whose army was defeated in 1565. The Jami Mosque at Bijapur with a wonderful design was raised by him.

Ibrahim II (1580-1626), Ali’s nephew is the greatest Adilshahi king. He captured and merged the Baridshahi Kingdom of Bidar in 1619. He was a tolerant ruler and was nicknamed ‘Jagadguru’. He built the temple of Narasimha Saraswati (Dattatreya) in the citadel of his fort. A lover of Hindu music, he had 300 singers in his court. He composed Kitab-e-Nauras in Urdu and thereby succeeded in introducing Hindu music to Muslims. The book begins with an invocation to Goddess Saraswati. He patronised great historians like Ferishta and Shirazi, and raised beautiful buildings like Ibrahim Rauza, Malika Jahan Masjid and Anand Mahal. His son Muhammad (1626-56) extended the kingdom in the south upto Bangalore and in the South-East upto Vellore. Bangalore and the surrounding regions were granted as jahgir to Shahji Bhosle, Shivaji’s father. The Marathas retained Bangalore till 1686. It is this prince who has built the magnificient Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur. The Adhilshahi kingdom was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1686. Adilshahi buildings at Bijapur like Asar Mahal and Ibrahim Rauza have paintings. Ragmala paintings and personal portraits of members of the royal family including Chand Bibi are preserved in the Bijapur Museum. Some of the Bijapur rulers were Shiahs and celebration
of Moharram by installing tabuts became common in Karnataka . A form of Urdu called Deccani Hindi also developed in their court.

The Mughals extended their territory to the South. They conquered Bangalore in 1686 and leased it out to Chikkadevaraya of Mysore . They made Sira in Karnataka and Arcot in Tamilnadu their important administrative centres. Sira has some fine Mughul buildings. The Nawabs of Savanur, Sira and Advani administered the Kannada territories under the Mughuls, and some Kannada districts were also administered by the Nizam of Golkanda another feudatory of the Mughuls.

Keladi Kingdom
The Keladi Nayakas, who were the feudatories of Vijayanagara, became practically free in the days of Venkatappa Nayaka I (1586-1629), who merged the coastal territories like Gersoppa into his kingdom. Shivappa Nayaka (1645-60), a great soldier and statesman ousted the Portuguese from their possessions on the West Coast, namely Mangalore, Honnavar and Basrur. He reformed the revenue system, and it is renowned as ‘Sisthu’. He helped reclamation of land on a large scale.
Keladi enjoyed a rich overseas trade, especially in spices, textiles and rice.

Their capitals viz., Keladi, Ikkeri and Nagara are in Shimoga district His daughter-in-law, Chennamma (1571-97) is renowned for her Valour, as she gave shelter to Maratha Chatrapati Rajaram (son of Shivaji) and braved Auranzeb’s army. Her successor Basavappa (1697-1714) wrote shivatatva ratnakara, a Sanskrit Encyclopaedia. They have raised fine temples at Keladi, Ikkeri Nagar and a wonderful hill fort at Kavaledurga. Keladi was captured by Haidar Ali in 1763, and the kingdom was merged with Mysore . Of the other feudatories of Vijayanagara, the Kempegowda family raised the fort and new city of Bangalore in 1537, and the Chitradurga Nayakas raised the magnificient hill-fort at Chitradurga.

The Marathas, who were encroaching upon the Bijapur dominion came to have control over the parts of Karnataka to the North of the Tungabhadra. Shivaji built forts at Ramadurg, Nargund, Parasgad, Gajendragad, Katkol etc., in North Karnataka . In the South they had their Bangalore jahgir administered first by Shahji (1637-63) and later by his son Ekoji. Mysore royal family secured Bangalore and its surroundings from the Mughals in 1689 on lease. The Mughals had conquered these areas in 1686 from Maratha ruler Ekoji, a feudatory of Bijapur. Later the Marathas had secured the right of collecting chauth and sardesmukhi, a part of the dues to the Mughals from the southern feudatories in the days of Chatrapati Shahu (Shivaji’s grandson) from the Mughal Emperor in 1719. In fact. Peshwa Balaji Rao had conquered Dharwad in 1753. Later Haidar and Tipu wrested Dharwad area from the Marathas. Although the Dharwad area was restored to the Marathas in 1791, they finally lost it after the fall of the Peshwa in 1818.

Mysore Rulers
The Mysore royal family, which was also a feudatory house under Vijayanagara, took advantage of the weakening of the Empire and became free. Raja Odeyar (1578-1617), secured Srirangapattana (in 1610), the seat of the Vijayanagara Viceroy. Kanthirava Narasaraja (1638-59), the first sovereign ruler, successfully esisted the efforts of Bijapur to subdue him, and extended his territory. He built the Narasimha temple at Srirangapattan. He issued his own coins called ‘Kanthirayi panams’. Chikkadevaraya (1673-1704) not only resisted the Marathas at Bangalore and Jinji successfully, but also extended his dominions in Tamilnadu. He secured Bangalore and its surroundings (which the Mughals had conquered from Ekoji) from the Mughals on lease and accepted Mughal suzerainty. He made Mysore a rich principality by his able revenue policies. Himself a great scholar and writer, he patronized many Kannada writers like Tirumalarya, Chikkupadhyaya and Honnamma. All these were Shrivaishnavas. Weak rulers succeeded him and this finally led to the usurpation of power by Haider Ali in 1761.

Haider Ali
The defeat of the Marathas at Panipat in 1761 helped Haider to follow an aggressive policy. He merged the Keladi Kingdom with Mysore and extended Mysore in all directions. He successfully used cavalry on a large scale. Mysore came to have 80,000 square miles of territory under him. Haider built the palace at Bangalore, strengthened its fort and began the Lalbagh Garden. He built the Dariya Daulat palace at Srirangapattana and laid a fine park allround it. He challenged the British in Tamilnadu and defeated them. But he was humiliated by Maratha Peshwa Madhavarao more than once. Haider allied himself with the French against the British. In the meantime Haider Ali captured and annexed the Chitradurga Principality from the Madakari family of Chitradurga in 1779. But he died at Narasingarayapet, near Arcot, while fighting against the British in 1782.

Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan (1782-99) continued his father’s anti-British policy, and he dreamt of driving the British out of India. He sought the assistance of Napoleon, the French ruler and also the rulers of Turkey and Afghanistan. Tipu was a scholar and a bold general. He introduced sericulture in Mysore Kingdom; and took firm steps to establish industrial centres producing quality paper; steel wires for musical instruments, sugar and sugar candy. He was very keen on promoting overseas trade and initiated State trading and founded stores not only in different centres of his kingdom but also at Kutch, Karachi and Basrah in the Middle East. He had a curious mind and was keen on introducing ovel things in every walk of life. But his ambition of driving the British failed and he died in 1799, fighting against the British. Mysore fell into the hands of the British who handed over parts of it to the Marathas and the Nizams, their allies in this venture, and crowned the Hindu prince, Krishnaraja Odeyar
III, as the ruler over Mysore kingdom, whose territories considerably reduced. They secured the territory to the north of the Tungabhadra by defeating the Peshwa in 1818, and became masters of Karnataka . Kodagu (Coorg) a small princely tributary state, was also annexed by them in 1834 by dethroning its ruler ikkavirarajendra.

British Rule
The advent of British rule brought about many changes in Karnataka , as elsewhere in India. The districts of Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Bijapur, Bagalkot and Belgaum taken from the Peshwa, were merged into Bombay Presidency in 1818. The Kanara District, now the districts of Uttara Kannada; Dakshina Kannada and Udupi; and Bellary taken from Tipu, were added on to the Madras Presidency. In 1862, the Kanara District was divided into two, and North Kanara (Uttara Kannada} was tagged on to Bombay Presidency. In 1834 the feudatory monarchy in Kodagu (Coorg) was ended and the State was handed over to a commissioner under the supervision of the Madras Governor. Sullya region belonging to Kodagu was transferred to Kanara. Mysore was retained as a separate principality; the prince of the Odeyar dynasty, Krishnaraja III, was yet a boy when he became the ruler in 1799. The areas in the modern districts of Gulbarga, Raichur, Koppal and Bidar were handed over to the Nizam of Hyderabad. In addition to the Nawab of Savanur, there were over 15 other princes, ruling over small Kannada principalities. Most of them were Maratha rulers who included the princes of Jamkhandi, Ramdurg, Mudhol, Sandur, Kurundawad, Jath etc. Mysore , as a nucleus of Karnataka , grew to be a ogressive State. It nurtured Kannada culture and encouraged Kannada literature and scholarship. But for the Mysore State, Karnataka would have lost its identity. Purnayya was made the Chief Administrator (Diwan) during the minority of Krishnaraja III, and later in 1810, Krishnaraja himself assumed administration. But the
Nagar Uprising of 1831, resulted in the East India Company assuming the Mysore administration in 1831, and Mysore came to be ruled by the British Commissioners for 50 years.

The prince, who was a great scholar and lover of literature, spent the rest of his life in literary and artistic pursuits. The Mysore court became a major centre of Rennaisance in Karnataka . He founded the Raja School for teaching English in 1833, which became the nucleus of the Maharaja’s high school and later upgraded as Maharaja’s College (1879). He also started a lithographic press called Ambavilasa (1841) and started printing books in Kannada. Modern Mysore Of the Commissioners that ruled Mysore between 1831 and 1881, two are the most notable viz., Mark Cubbon (1834-61) and Lewin Bowring (1862-70). To these two goes the credit of making Mysore a modern State by organizing the administration on European lines and bringing it on par with the other districts in the British residencies. They also encouraged education by increasing the number of schools. By building roads and railways, and by introducing the telegraph, an infrastructure was rovided for industrial progress, which they had not anticipated.

The year 1881 saw the Rendition, when Chamarajendra Odeyar, the adopted son of Krishnaraja III, secured the throne. He was assisted by able Diwans like angacharlu and Sheshadri Iyer. Rangacharlu, the first Diwan, founded the Representative Assembly in Mysore in 1881, and thus prepared the ground for responsible government. He encouraged Kannada scholarship. The prince was also a great lover of literature and fine arts. The prince died in 1894, and young Krishnaraja Odeyar IV was crowned the king, and the Queen-Mother Vanivilas became the Regent. Sheshadri Iyer continued as Diwan till 1901.

Economic Changes
Diwan Purnayya raised a dam across the river Cauvery at Sagarakatte to improve irrigation. The laying of first railway line (Broad-gauge) between Bangalore and Jolarpet initiated during the regime of Cubbon, started functioning from 1864, when Bowring was the Cmmissioner. Cubbon was also responsible for the construction of new roads exceeding 2560 kms. in length, with 300 bridges. Coffee plantations, also started by him covered over 1.50 akh acres. He also founded the Public Works and Forest Departments. District Savings Bank were started in Princely Mysore in 1870. Rangacharlu got the Bangalore-Mysore metre gauge rail line ready by 1882, (which was initiated earlier during commissioners rule in 1877-78) by spending a sum of Rs.55.48 lakhs. The work on the line was started as famine relief during the severe famine of 1876-78, which took the toll of one million lives in Mysore State alone.

Sheshadri Iyer who initiated gold mining in Kolar region in 1886, created the Departments of Geology (1894), Agriculture (1898), and launched the Vanivilasa Sagara Irrigation Scheme in Chitradurga district. The Shivanasamudra Hydro-Electric Project, which supplied power to Kolar Gold Fields in 1902, later, also provided ectricity to Bangalore city in 1905 (first city to obtain electrical facilities in the whole country) and for Mysore in 1907, was the first major project of its kind in India. Although it is interesting to note that in 1887, an Hydro Electric project was started at Gokak in a small scale by Gokak Spinning Mill. The Bangalore Mill was started in 1884 and it was taken over by the Binnys, Bangalore Woolen, Cotton and Silk Mills in 1886.

It was about this time that elsewhere in Kamataka too, modern industrialisation started and railway and road transport facilities began to improve. Harihara-Pune railway line was completed in 1888. Mangalore was connected by rail with Madras in 1907. The Gokak Spinning Mill (1885) had been founded by securing power from the Gokak Falls (1887) and Mangalore had some tile factories, first initiated by the Basel Mission (1865). A spinning and weaving mill was also started at Gulbarga in 1888. Gold mining had started in the Hatti region of Raichur District after priliminary investigations in 1886. Hubli and Gadag had many ginning mills by then. Thus Industrialization gave impetus to urbanisation and modernisation. Agriculture was also receiving great fillip because of better irrigation and demand for raw materials. The ‘Cotton Boom’ of the 1860s of the American Civil War days gave impetus to raising cotton crop, and though demand from Manchester fell after the 1860s, new factories founded at Bombay and Sholapur (Sollapur) did purchase cotton from North Kamataka area. But spinning, a domestic industry which provided hither-too jobs to lakhs of women by assuring a wage equal to a farm worker, was totally destroyed after the Industrial Revolution, and so was weaving. Thus pressure on land increased.

Anti-British Uprisings
Karnataka did not tamely submit to the foreign rule of the British. There were anti-British violent uprisings between 1800 and 1858. The earliest of these was of Dhondia Wagh, who after the fall of Tipu, unfurled the flag of revolt against the British in 1800 from the Bidanur-Shikaripur region; many former princes joined him. His revolt spread from Jamalabad to Sode in Coastal Districts and above the Ghats upto Belgaum and Raichur Districts. He was killed at Konagal in September 1800, and his colleague Krishnappa Nayak of Belur (Balam) was killed in February 1802. This was followed by the Koppal Rebellion led by one Virappa in 1819. The year-1820 saw the Deshmukh rebellion near Bidar. A strong revolt was witnessed at Sindhagi in Bijapur District in 1824. The revolt of Kittur Channamma in 1824 and of Sangolli
Rayanna in the same kingdom in 1829 are also famous. This was followed by the Nagar Uprising of 1830-31 accompanied by similar agrarian revolts in the Kanara District in 1831. Sarja Hanumappa Nayak of Tarikere also joined the insurgents. Though this revolt failed, it cost Krishnaraja III his throne. There was an uprising in Kodagu during 1835-37, which was also strong in Dakshina Kannada (Sullya and Mangalore). One former official of the Peshwa called Narasappa Petkar organized a revolt against the British in 1841. Karnataka responded to the 1857-58 uprisings positively. In November 1857, the Halagali Bedas revolted against the Arms Act. The rulers of Naragund and Surapur, joined by Mundargi Bheemarao, a Zamindar and the Desais of Govanakoppa, Hammige, Soraturu etc, also revolted in 1858. There was a long revolt in Supa jointly led by men from Goa and Uttara Kannada who included some Siddis (Negroes) in 1858-59.

Though the uprisings were suppressed, their lessons were not totally forgotten. It was the Nagar Uprising (1830) which ultimately resulted in the founding of Mysore Representative Assembly in 1881. The British learnt to respond to the grievances of the people quickly. Local self governing bodies were founded in towns in 1850’s and 1860’s. People also learnt that without proper organisation, it is not possible to free the country from the British. The British also felt the need to improve the means of transport and communication to enable them to meet situations of breach of peace. The communication facilities initiated by them mainly served their colonial economic purposes.

Beginning of Renaissance
The new administration everywhere helped the spread of modern education.Christian Missionaries also started education on Western lines. There were over 2000 primary schools in Mysore State by 1881. Bombay- Karnataka area had over 650 primary schools by that time. Though there were only Marathi schools in Bombay-Karnataka , men like Elliot and Deputy Channabasappa strove to introduce Kannada medium. A college was started at Bellary in 1869. A Government college was founded at Bangalore in 1870 (named Central College in 1875) and later Bangalore saw a second institution, the St.Joseph’s College, in 1882. The Maharaja’s College of Mysore was started in 1879. The Government College of Mangalore was founded in 1869, followed by the St.Aloysius College in 1879. Christian Missionaries started printing in Kannada as early as 1817 (first from Serampore near Calcutta) and the first newspaper named ‘Mangaluru Samachara’ was started by the Basel Mission in 1843. Many old Kannada classics were printed. All these developments helped literary activity on new lines. Prose became popular and secular themes appeared in literature.

Many newspapers and journals were published in Kannada. They include ‘Kannada Samachara’ (Bellary 1844), ‘Chandrodaya’ (Dharwad 1877), ‘Karnataka Prakashika’ (Mysore 1865) and ‘Arunodaya’ (Bangalore 1862). These are a few of the many such efforts. Lyrical poetry in Kannada also came to be composed, beginning with the prayer songs composed by the Missionaries. Mysore court also encouraged many writers. Mudramanjusha (1823) by Kempunarayana
was the first important prose work. Many English and Sanskrit plays were translated. The first original Kannada social play was Iggappa Heggadeya Prahasana (1887) by Venkatarama Shastry. The first original Kannada social novel was Suryakanta (1892) by Gadagkar, though social novels had been translated from English, Marathi and Bengali too by then. The stage art and music also were influenced by these changes. New drama troupes came into existence at Gadag (1874) and Halasangi and there was a troupe at Mysore too. The visit of Marathi troupe from Sangli in 1876-77 and the Victoria Parsi Company in 1878 to Karnataka , revolutionized stagecraft here. Veena Venkatasubbayya, Sambayya and Chikkaramappa were some of the great veena masteroes in the Mysore court at this time. A distinct Mysore school of Karnatak music was evolved during this period.

In architecture, Western impact was seen. The Central College building (1860) in Gothic style, the Athara Kachery (1867) with ionic pillars and the Bangalore Museum Building (1877) in Corinthian style were built during this period. The Basel Missionary introducing light tiles from Mangalore revolutionised architectural patterns. Churches too introduced the Western style. Our Lady of Sorrow Church (Mangalore 1857), St.Mary’s Church (Shivajinagar, Bangalore, 1882), St. Joseph’s Seminary Church (Mangalore 1890) and St.Mary’s Church (Belgaum, 1896) are some such early examples. Many social movements stirred Hindu society and social changes received an impetus. The propoganda of the Christian missions was also responsible for this, especially of the newly founded Protestant missions, though in a
negative way. The Theosophical Society started its work in Mysore State in 1886, Brahma Samaj started its activities at Bangalore in 1866 and also at Mangalore in 1870. This was followed by the Depressed Classes Mission, founded by Kudmul Ranga Rao at Mangalore in 1897, which started many schools for the depressed classes. Bangalore had the Indian Progressive Union in 1894. Mysore State banned the marriage of girls below eight. Sheshadri Iyer started separate schools for the untouchables as they were hesitating to attend other regular schools. The Maharani’s school for girls founded in 1881 at Mysore by Palace Bakshi Ambale Narasimha lyengar became a high school in 1891 and later into College in 1901. The Ramakrishna Mission was founded in Bangalore in 1904. These developments mainly helped emancipation of women and attempted eradication of untouchability.

It was in this atmosphere that the history of the State also came to be written. Fleet’s Dynasties of Canarese Districts (1882), Bhandarkar’s Early History of Dakhan (1884), Rice’s Epigraphia Carnatica volumes (beginning from 1886), Indian Antiquary volumes from 1872 and Sewell’s A Forgotten Empire (1901) helped the recovery of Karnataka ’s history, and made the people of Karnataka feel proud of their hoary past. This paved the way for the high renaissance and the national awakening in the 20th century.

In the princely State, amidst all these developments, the first ever Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition was organised at Mysore in 1888. The Karnataka idyavardhaka Sangha of Dharwad (1890), the Mythic Society of Bangalore (1909), the Karnataka Ithihasa Samshodhana Mandala of Dharwad (1914) further helped the Renaissance. An all-Karnataka literary and cultural forum was founded in 1915, and this was the Karnataka Sahitya Parishat, with its headquarters in Bangalore. It had the active support of the Mysore

Government and its president, H.V. Nanjundaiah also became the Vice- Chancellor of the newly founded Mysore University (1916). Aluru Venkatarao wrote ‘Karnataka Gata Vaibhava’ in 1917, introducing to the Kannadigas in Kannada, the history and cultural achievements of Karnataka . Written in a tone, highly charged with emotion, the work played an important role in inculcating national feelings. He was the Father of the Karnataka Unification Movement also.

Princes of Mysore were all enlightened administrators and their genuine interest in the progress of the State, won them the affection and respect of the people. All of them were patrons of learning, literature, music and other fine arts. Krishnaraja Wadeyar IV, who ruled from 1902 to 1940, led an unostentatious life and combined piety with a modern outlook. During his reign the State made rapid progress in all directions. His younger brother Kanthirava Narasimharaja Odeyar, the Yuvaraja of Mysore , was also a generous patron of fine arts; for many years he was the Honorary President of the Kannada Sahitya Parishat. His son, Jayachamaraja Odeyar, who came to the throne in 1940, proved as enlightened as his uncle. When the country won independence, Mysore acceded to the Indian Union. Jayachamaraja Odeyar served as Governor, and won an enduring place in the heart of the people The Diwans in charge of the administration in Mysore made the Principality
not only a modern state but also a model state is already observed.

Diwan P.N. Krishnamurthy (1901-06) improved the administration by introducing upto- date methods followed in British India in office procedure and maintenance of records, and he founded the Co-operative Department in 1906. The next Diwan V.P. Madhava Rao, founded the Legislative Council (1907), the second chamber, and took measure for forest conservation. The Central Co—operative Bank was also his creation. An Engineer with alarming vision, great economist and administrator of foresightedness, Sir. M. Visveswaraya became the Diwan in 1912. He was a man of vision and a dynamic administrator and during his brief period of administration that the Kannambadi Reservoir Project initiated earlier was started and top priority was given to its construction. He founded many industries and undertook such progressive and far-reaching administrative measures that he came to be known as “the Maker of Modern Mysore ”. The Sandalwood Oil Factory of Mysore (1916), Mysore Chrome Tanning Factory (1918), Government Soap Factory in Bangalore and the Wood Distillation Factory at Bhadravati were also founded by Sir.M. Visveswaraya. The iron unit at Bhadravati was also his brain-child. He founded the Engineering College at Bangalore (1917), the Medical School at Bangalore (1917), the Agricultural
School (1913), the nucleus for the future University of Agricultural Sciences), and the Mysore University (1916) were also his creations. The Mysore Bank was also started in his time (1913) and so was Mysore Chamber of Commerce (1916).

Another important Diwan was Sir Mirza M. Ismail (1926-41) who was responsible for making Mysore as one of the best known Princely States in India by expanding its industries, founding new ones and undertaking major irrigation projects. Mysore State served as a strong nucleus of Karnataka by its economic progress and cultural achievements.

Plantation industries was expanded both in Mysore and Kodagu. Kannambadi project commissioned during early Diwans regime was completed when Sir Mirza was the Diwan. It gave impetus to Sugarcane growing and helped the founding of Sugar-Factories at a later date. Under Diwan Mirza Ismail, the Cauvery Upper Canal was commissioned, benefiting over one lakh acres of land. Industrialization in Mysore was in full swing. The Bhadravati Iron factory had been founded by Sir. M. Visveswaraya and Sir Mirza Ismail expanded it by adding a steel unit.’

The District Savings Banks, attached to District Treasuries were started in 1870. Bangalore saw three banking companies in 1868, and a total of 24 such institutions ere seen by 1876 in the city, though not many survived. Chitradurga Savings Bank was founded in 1870. Madras Presidency Bank had founded its branch at Bangalore in 1864. South Kanara had its Banking Companies like the Canara Bank, (Mangalore) (1906) and Corporation Bank (Udupi) (1906). Later came the Pangal Nayak Bank (1920), Jayalakshmi Bank (1923), Karnataka Bank (1924), Udupi Bank (1925), Catholic Bank (1925), Vijaya Bank (1925) and the Syndicate Bank (1925). The Town Co-operative Bank was started at Hospet in 1915. Dharwad District saw many Co-operative Societies beginning with the one at Kanaginal in 1906, most of them in present Gadag district. The Dharwad D.C.C. Bank was started in 1916. Co-operative movement also made great strides in Kodagu, Udupi and Dakshina annada.

Tile industry was expanded in South Kanara and Cashewnut husking units were also started in 1924 such as the Pierce Leslie and the Mallya Cashew. Beedi rolling in Coastal region and Agarbati production in Mysore State were started as domestic industries in an organised way. The Swadeshi Movement gave a fillip to industrial activity in the British districts of Karnataka . A big oil mill viz., B.T. Mills, was started at Davangere in 1918, and several Cotton ginning factories had been started in the town, even earlier to this.

Sir Mirza Ismail was responsible for the founding of many new industries in Mysore State as already noted. He founded the Government Cement Factory (1936) and Mysore Paper Mills (1938) both at Bhadravati. The Sugar Factory at Mandya (1934), the Mysore Chemical and Fertilizers Factory (1937) at Belagola (the first of its kind in India) and the Glass and Porceline Factories (1939 )at Bangalore to mention only a few. It was he who initiated plans to produce power at Shimsha and Jog and the most important industry initiated during his time was Hindustan Aircrafts in 1940. Moreover, Kaiser-I-Hind Wollen Mill had started production in 1922, and it was followed by the Minerva Mills.

Thus industrialisation was in full swing, and the Second World War gave a further fillip. At Harihara was started the Mysore Kirloskars machine shop in 1941. The Davanagere Cotton Mills started in 1939 gave a fillip to the founding of more such mills in the town. Sugar factory was founded at Hospet in 1935, followed by the Munirabad Sugar Mills in 1944. The Faruk Anwar Oil Mill was started at Raichur in 1944. Oil mills, Soap units, Saw mills, etc, came to be founded in small towns too. Banks and the Co-operative sectors provided the necessary finance.

Cultural Developments
The High Renaissance of the 20th century saw many great developments in the field of music, drama, painting and literature. The Mysore court patronized great artistes like Veene Sheshanna, Lakshminarayanappa, Bakshi Subbanna, Vasudevacharya, Mutthayya Bhagavatar and Bidaram Krishnappa. The younger generation also had its great masters like T. Chowdaiah, who evolved the seven stringed violin, and B. Devendrappa. There were great classical dancers like Jatti Thayamma and Muguru Subbanna in princely Mysore . In the field of drama, Mysore saw great artistes like Varadacharya, Gubbi Veeranna, Subbayya Naidu, and Smt. Malavalli Sundaramma. There were equally great artistes from North Karnataka area like Shirahatti Venkoba Rao, Garuda Sadashiv Rao and Vamanarao Master. Kailasam and Bellary Raghava were great amateur artiste. Kannada films, too, appeared. The North Karnataka area had great Hindusthani vocalists like Savay Gandharva (Rambhau Kundgolkar), Panchakshari Gavayi, Puttaraja Gavayi and Mallikarjuna Mansur.

Painting also received patronage at the hands of the Mysore prince. The Prince even sent K. Venkatappa to Shantiniketana for training and this painter won world renown. He was also a sculptor. Another noted sculptor from Mysore was Siddalingaswamy. The Chamarajendra Technological Institute (Mysore ) was founded to train artists and Jaganmohan Palace was converted into an art gallery. The traditional Gudigars of the Malenadu (Sagar-Sirsi area), imbibing modern techniques and ideas, started producing fine figures in wood and ivory, which secured a world market. Their handiwork can be seen in the decoration of Mysore palace and Vidhana Soudha.

The Renaissance had its impact on literature too. Prose writing became popular and journalism also grew. Several forms of literature like the short story, the essay, the novel, drama and lyrical poetry, developed in Kannada. Masti Venkatesha lyengar, Panje Mangesha Rao, M.N. Kamath and Kerur Vasudevacharya were some of the early short story writers followed by ‘Ananda* ‘Anandakanda’, A.R. Krishna Sastry, K. Gopalakrishna Rao, Krishnakumar Kallur, ‘Anakru’ (A.N. Krishna Rao). ‘Bharatipriya’ (Venkata Rao), Gorur Ramaswamy lyengar, Dr. R.S. Mugali, Gauramma and ‘Raghava’ (M.V. Seetharamaiah). Shivaram Karanth and ‘Anakru’ {A.N. Krishna Rao) are the two celebrated novelists. English Geethegalu (1921) by B.M. Srikanthaiah is the first collection of modern lyrics in Kannada. He was followed by Govinda

Pai, Dr. D.V. Gundappa, Dr. Bendre, P.T. Narasimhachar, G.P. Rajarathnam, Panje Mangesha Rao, Kadengodlu Shankara Bhatta, Dr. V. Sitharamaiah, Dr. V.K. Gokak and Dr. K.V. Puttappa (Kuvempu). Govinda Pai was the pioneer in discarding the rhyme (1911,) Modern Kannada play had its pioneers like B.M. Srikanthaiah, Samsa, Kailasam, Sreeranga and Shivaram Karanth. Publication of Epigraphia Carnatica volumes covering epigraphs from all districts by Rice and R. Narasimchar is a pioneering and unparallelled achievement of the erstwhile Mysore State. Dr. R. Shama Shastry (who discovered Kautilya’s Arthashasthra), and Prof. M. Hiriyanna by their Indological studies, brought world fame to Mysore and Karnataka . Printing became wide spread. Newspapers played an important role, helping literary growth, spreading modern and scientific ideas, propagating patriotism and progressive social views and trying to encourage everything that is good in arts. In Mysore , M. Venkatakrishnaiah was running ‘Vritthantha Chinthamani’ (1885). The ‘Mysore Standard”, the ‘Mysore Star’ etc, were some other newspapers from Mysore State. Coastal Karnataka had the ‘Suvasini’ (1900), The Krishnasukti (1905) and the ‘Swadeshabhimani’ (1907). The Karnataka Vrittha’ (1890), (edited by Mudavidu Krishna Rao), the ‘Kannada Kesari (Hubli 1902) the ‘Rajahamsa’ (Dharwad, 1891) and Karnataka Vaibhava (Bijapur 1897) were the periodicals from North Karnataka . The freedom movement stimulated the publication of many new newspapers.

Fight for Freedom
The Freedom Movement and the demand for Unification of Karnataka became very strong in Karnataka after 1920. They are the climax of the trends witnessed in renascent Karnataka . The freedom movement influenced literature, journalism, arts, industries and even society. It sponsored with great zeal, the programme of eradication of untouchability and emancipation of women. The achievement of social unity and undoing on an large scale of caste prejudices was also the work of the movement. The Veerashaiva Mahasabha (1904), the Okkaligara Sangha (1906) and other such organisations helped to spread education and the creation of a onsciouness of their rights among the backward classes. In 1917 was founded the Praja Mitra Mandali in Mysore and in 1920 Brahmanetara Parishat at Hubli with similar goals was started. Though these movements were against Congress which spearheaded freedom struggle, but in the long run, they whole-heartedly joined Congress in its struggle for freedom. Four persons (one from Belgaum and three from Bellary) from Karnataka went to attend the first session of Congress at Bombay in 1885. The impact of Bala Gangadhara Tilak and his journal ‘Kesari’ on Karnataka was great. The Bombay State Political Conferences were held at Dharwad (1903), Belgaum (1916) and Bijapur (1918) in North Karnataka area, which were then under the Bombay Presidency. There was picketing of liquor shops in Belgaum in 1907 (during the Swadeshi movement, following ‘Vangabhanga’ or Partition of Bengal) and 15 people were imprisoned. National

Schools were founded at Belgaum, Dharwad, Hubli, and Bijapur. Theosophists earlier had founded the National High School at Bangalore in 1917. Meanwhile, on returning from South Africa in 1915, when Gandhi (1869- 1948) visited Madras, at the request of D.V. Gundappa, he made a short visit to Bangalore on May 8th 1915 to unveil the portrait of Gopala Krishna Gokhale, and on his way to Bangalore, he was garlanded and honoured on the platform at the Bangarapet Railway Station by the Local Gujarati merchants. In fact, this was his first visit to the Princely State of Mysore . In 1916 he visited Belgaum and stayed there for 5 days by inaugurating the Bombay State Political Conference.

The first Karnataka State Political Conference was held at Dharwad in 1920, and according to its decision, nearly 800 people from Karnataka attended the Nagpur Congress in 1920. At Nagpur, Karnataka secured a separate provincial Congress Committee (1921) and GangadharaRao Deshpande of Belgaum was made the first K.P.C.C. President. In the meantime, as a part of Khilafat Movement, Gandhi visited Bangalore on 11-8-1920 and after addressing the public speech, he left for Madras. A week later, while returning from his Madras tour, Gandhi visited Kasaragod and Mangalore on 19-8-1920.

During the same year, on November 7th Gandhi visited Nippani, Chikkodi, Hukkeri, Sankeshwar and halted at Belgaum. On 10th November he visited Dharwad and on the following day after addressing the gatherings at Hubli and Gadag, he left for Miraj. During 1921, he visited Bagalkot, Bijapur and Kolhar on 27th and 28th May. In the same year, unavoidable circumstances forced him to stay at Bellary Railway Station for few hours on 30th September night. Later he proceeded to Guntkal in the morning.

Meanwhile, Non Co-operation Movement of 1921-22 saw many lawyers giving up their practice and many students boycotting schools and colleges. Khilaphat Movement was also launched with this. Nearly 50 National Schools were started in Karnataka and over 70 persons from the British Districts courted arrest.
Picketers were fired on in Dharwad and Bangalore, and three Khilaphat workers died in Dharwad and two in Bangalore Cantonment. Dr. Hardikar from Karnataka , organised Hindusthani Seva Dal, a voluntary corps with Hubli as its all-India headquarters. The Belgaum Congress of 1924 (20th December to 27th December), presided over by Gandhiji was a grand success, and was greatly responsible for public awakening in the State. Gangadhara Rao Deshpande, Hanumanta Rao Kaujalgi and Shrinivasarao Kaujalgi of Bijapur, Tekur of Bellary and Karnad Sadashiva Rao of Mangalore were some of the early leaders of Congress from Karnataka .

Gandhi in Karnataka (1927)
Meanwhile, Gandhi undertook the Khadi campaign tour in 1927. As a part of it he visited Nippani (31st March) and in the course of it he fell ill with a slight paralysis stroke. On the doctor’s advise, (1st April) he left Belgaum to

Amboli for rest. But, being unsatisfied there, he left for Nandi via Belgaum on 19th April and reached Nandi on 20-04-1927. In Nandi he rested for 45 days (20-4-1927 to 05-6-1927) and reached Bangalore via Chikballapur on 5th June 1927, where he stayed upto 30-8-1927. During his long stay at Bangalore he made brief trips to Yelahanka (2-7-1927), Tumkur and Madhugiri (14th to 16th), Mysore , KRS, K.R. Nagar and Srirangapattana and returned to Mysore (23rd July); Ramanagar and Kanakapura (31st July and 1st August); Arasikere (2nd August); Holenarasipur and Hassan(2nd and 4th August); Davangere (12th August); Harihara, Honnali and Malebennur (13th August); Shimoga (14th and 15th);Ayyanuru, Kumshi, Choradi, Ananthpur and Sagar (16th August); Thirthalli, Mandagadde, Gajanur and halted at Shimoga (17th August); Bhadravathi, Kadur and Birur (18th August); Chikmagalur (19th August); Belur, Halebid and Arasikere (20th August) ultimately left Bangalore
for Vellore on 30-8-1927.

Later, the Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Gandhiji in 1930, began in Karnataka with Salt Sathyagraha at Ankola, followed by various programmes of law breaking like Jungle Sathyagraha, Picketing of liquor shops, Non-payment of Pasture Tax (hullubanni) and finally No-Tax Campaign when peasants refused to pay land revenue. Over 2,000 people courted arrest in the British districts, Belgaum District’s quota being the biggest i.e., 750. The movement was resumed in 1932 after the nine-months lull following the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, with greater vigour. The No-Tax Campaign launched in Siddapura and Ankola taluks was an epic struggle. The lands of over 800 families were confiscated and 1000 people went to jail in Uttara Kannada alone; among them were one hundred women, and most of them were illiterate and even conservative widows with shaven heads. They got their lands back only in 1939, and till then they suffered in silence.

Programmes and propaganda to eradicate Untouchability were launced in Karnataka , when Gandhiji undertook a fast over the issue in 1932. The highlights of the programme was to make the Harijans to enter the Marikamba Temple of Sirsi and the Basavangudi of Bangalore. Gandhiji also toured Karnataka as a part of his programme of upliftment of Harijans in 1934 and 1936. By then, Harijan Sevak Sangh’s Karnataka unit was founded with Sardar Veeranagauda Patil as the President.
Gandhi in Karnataka (1934)

During his 1934 tour, Gandhi visited Vidhuraswatha, Gowribidanur, Doddaballapur, Tumkur, Tyamagondalu, Nelamangala, Bangalore and halted at Mysore on 4-1-1934 ; visited Tagadur, Badanawal, Nanjanagud and halted at Mysore (5th January); proceeded to Mandya, Sugar town, Maddur, Besagarahalli,Shivapura, Somanahalli, Channapatna, Ramanagar, Kanakapur, Bidadi, Kengeri and reached Bangalore (6th January). On 10th left for Vallavi Kote and after touring Tamil Nadu, visited Mysore , Tittimatti, Kikkeri, Ponnampet, and Hudigere (22nd Feb); visited Virajpet, Bellur, Somwarpet, Gundagutti, and halted at Madikeri (23rd Feb); Sampaje, Sullia, Puttur, Uppinangadi, Vittala, Kannadaka, Pane Mangalore, Bantwal and halted at Mangalore (24th February); visited Gurupura, Bajpe, Katilu, Kengoli, Mulki, Padabidri, Kapu, Ratapadi, Udayavara, Udupi, Brahmavara (25th February) and halted at Kundapur (25th and 26th February); Bhatkal, Honnavara, Kadri and halted at Karwar (27th); Binaga, Chandiya, Ankola, Hiregutti, Mandageri, Kumta, Ammanapalli, Hegde and halted at Sirsi (28th February); Kanasur, Siddapur, Dasanakoppa, Isur, Yakkambi, Samasaji, Allur, Devi Hosur, Haveri, Byadgi, Motebennur, Murughamut and halted at Haveri (1st March); visited Ranebennur, Harihara, Davanagere, Duggatti, Bennihal, Harapanahalli, Kottur, Kudligi, Kanavihalli and halted at Sandur (2nd March); Bellary, Hospet, Banapura, Gadag, Jakkali and halted at Hubli (3rd March); Dharwad, Marewada, Amminabhavi, Moraba, Harobidi, Hongala, Uppina Betageri, Hirehullekere, Saundatti, Gural Hosur, Bailhongal, Sampagaon and Bagewadi (4th March) halted at Begaum ( 4th and 5th March); visited Tondekatte and returned to Belgaum (6th March); visited Yamakamaradi, Ontamuri, Hukkeri,
Gokak, Sankeshwar, Gadihingalga, Hattikanagale, Nippani, Bhoj, Havinhal, Kotahalli, Dholagarawadi, Chikkodi, Ankali and halted at Shedbal (7th March). On 8th March after visiting Mangasuli, Banahatti, Athani, Honnawad, Tikota, Toravi, Bijapur and Ilkal; via Jorapur proceeded towards Hyderabad. This tour of more than two months duration brought social awareness and the downtrodden mass ( whom he called Harijans) started gaining self-confidence and moral courage.

Later in 1936 due to High Blood Pressure, Gandhiji again fell ill. He was advised to take rest. Hence he came to stay at Nandi Hills during May 1936. During this stay (11th May-30th May) he recovered speedily. On 31st May he left Nandi and reached Bangalore, after visiting Chikballapur, Sidlaghatta, Chintamani, Kolar, Bangarpet and KGF, the same night via Malur he reached Bangalore and stayed upto 10-6-1936. After visiting Kengeri he left for Madras on 11-6-1936. This was his last visit to Bangalore and Princely State of Mysore .

During 1937 April, Gandhi visited Hudali (in Belgaum District), an important Khadi Centres, to inaugurate the Khadi Exhibition. He stayed there from 16th April to 21st April. It was his last visit to Karnataka . After this, till his death in 1948, somehow he could not visit this region which was one of his favourite and affectionate area in the Country.

Amidst all these, although there were no agitations in Princely States till 1937, the people of Mysore State founded Mysore Congress in that year, and launched the Flag Satyagraha in 1938 by organising the first session of the Mysore Congress at Shivapura (Mandya District). The Vidhurashwatha (Kolar District) tragedy followed soon after in which 10 were killed by police fire. This was followed by the movement for responsible government in 1939. T. Siddalingaiah, H.C. Dasappa, S. Siddayya, K.C. Reddy, H.K. Veeranna Gowda, K.T. Bhashyam, T.Subramanyam, K. Hanumanthaiah, S. Nijalingappa, M.N. Jois and Smt. Yashodhara Dasappa were some of the important leaders of Mysore Congress. Similarly the Hyderabad Congress was launched in 1938, and it made a strong demand for responsible government. Likewise in other Princely States of Karnataka also, a strong demand for responsible government was launched under the guidance of the National Congress.

“Quit India Movement” 1942-43.
The Quit India Movement saw unprecedented awakening in Karnataka . Students in all colleges and schools went on strike. Labourers in Bangalore and other places, numbering over 30,000, also struck work for over two weeks. ver 50 people (of whom 11 from Bangalore alone) fell victims to firing by the police. Seven from Bailhongal, seven from Davangere, six from Shravanabelgola were martyrs of the Quit India Movement. Death of Mailara Mahadevappa and two of his companions in Haveri District was a serious tragedy. The Isur village in Shimoga district which demonstrated unbridled fury against the British had five of its heroes hanged. A total of 15,000 people out of which 10,000 from Princely Mysore alone) went to jail in 1942-43 from Karnataka . Dharwad and Belgaum areas, evidenced heroic sabotage and subversive works by organised group of patriots, which became famous as “Karnataka Pattern” praised even by Jayaprakash Narayan.

Even after India becoming free in 1947, Hyderabad Karnatak region could be liberated only after the Police Action in 1948. Among the men who organized Congress, Ramananda Teertha, Janardanrao Desai, G. Ramachar, Krishnacharya Joshi, A. Shivamurthy Swamy and Sharanagouda Inamda r were the noted leaders from Hyderabad Karnatak area. In Mysore State an agitation called “Mysore Chalo” was launched for the establishment of responsible government. The agitation succeeded, and a team of ministers headed by K.Chengalaraya Reddy as the Chief Minister, took charge of the administration in October, 1947. Later he was succeeded by K. Hanumanthaiah (1952) and Kadidal Manjappa (1956) as Chief Ministers in the erstwhile Mysore State. To Hanumanthaiah goes the credit of raising Vidhana Saudha, the biggest building in granite of modern times.

Daily newspapers like the Taruna Kamataka’ (Hubli), the ‘Samyuktha Karnataka ’, (Belgaum, and later Hubli), the ‘Janavani’, the Tayinadu*, ‘Navajeevana’, ‘Veerakesarf and Vishwa Karnataka ’ (all from Bangalore) and ‘Kodagu’ (Weekly) from Madikeri rendered yeoman service to the movement. Women also came to the fore and participated in processions and the picketing of liquor shops and pro-British establishments braved lathi blows and went to jail with babies in arm. Mention can be made of Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya, Umabai Kundapur, Krishnabai Panjekar, Yashodhara Dasappa, Siddamma Bellary and Gauramma Venkataramaiah who were in the forefront of the movement.

Unification of Karnataka
After independence, a persistent effort had to be made for the Unification of Karnataka . The movement for Unification, had been, infact, launched together with the movement for freedom in Karnataka . Before independence, Karnataka had been distributed among as many as 20 administrations and the handicaps and sufferings of the people of Karnataka in those days were severe. In a Kannada area like Mudhol, ruled by a Maratha Prince, there were no Kannada schools and the administration was conducted in Marathi. This was the case with many Maratha States. In Hyderbad State, Urdu dominated. In big British Presidencies like Bombay or Madras, where Kannada districts were few and he Kannadigas were in a minority, their sufferings were many. They had no just share in the development activities. They could not secure minimum facilities like roads or bridges. Everywhere the voice of the Kannadiga was a voice in the wilderness.

The Renaissance had also created a strong yearning for Unification. Dharwad was the centre of the movement, and Alur Venkatarao was the brain behind it. He had supporters like Mudavidu Krishnarao, Kadapa Raghavendra Rao and Gadigayya Honnapurmath. The Karnataka Sahithya Parishat was founded (1915) at Bangalore partially by the efforts of these people, and it provided a forum for the writers and intellectuals of Karnataka . The writers and Journalists met annually at the Kannada Literary Conference organised by the Parishat and finally the first Karnataka State Political Conference held at Dharwad (1920) decided to agitate for Unification through the Congress organisation too. The Nagpur Congress agreed to establish the K.P.C.C. in that year. Thus Unification, initially an idea of the Kannada writers and journalists, secured the support of the politicians. The first Unification Conference was held at Belgaum in 1924 during the Belgaum Congress, with Siddappa Kambli as its president. Nine such conferences were held till the dawn of Independence, and afterwards, Karnataka came under five administrations in 1947,viz., (1) Bombay (2) Madras (3) Kodagu (4) Mysore and (5) Hyderabad states (instead of 20). Minor Princely States like Jamkhandi, Ramadurg, Mudhol, Sandur etc. numbering 15 have been merged with neighbouring districts soon after independence.

From 1947, Unification was a demand that had to be urged upon the Government of India. But this also had to be a serious movement. In 1953, the Akhanda Karnataka Rajya Nirmana Parishat, a newly founded party with K.R. Karanth as the President, had to launch a major Sathyagraha and more than 5,000 people courted arrest. Finally, the Fazl Ali Commission was appointed, and according to its recommendations, linguistically united Mysore State (Karnataka ) came into existence on the 1st November 1956 and S.Nijalingappa became its Chief Minister. Later, during D. Devaraj Urs’s regime, it was named as Karnataka , a long cherished aspiration of the Kannadigas
in 1973.

The election results in the State reflect the political mood and changes in the administrative set up of the State. While furnishing the results for the 1957, 1962 and 1967 elections, political parties which have secured seats in the elections alone are mentioned. After 1972 the number of candidates contested and elected from each party and the percentage of votes obtained by them are also given. From 1998, election statistics given here include details relating to male and female contestants of each party also.

Lok Sabha, 1952: Before unification (1956), there were only 9 constifuencies and of them, two were double member constituencies. Of them 10 were secured by INC and the remaining one was won by Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party (KMPP)

Vidhana Soudha, 1952: During this election, there were 80 onstituencies and of them 19 were double member constituencies. Of the 99 seats 72 seats won by INC, nine seats went to KMPP and eleven seats were secured by Independents. SOP secured 4, SCF 2 and CPI secured one seat.

Lok Sabha, 1957: (Total No. of seats 26) (Double member constituencies 3) Indian National Congress - 23; Praja Socialist Party - 1; Scheduled Castes Federation - 1 ; Independents-1. Legislative Assembly, 1957: (Total No. of seats: 208) (Double member constituencies-29) Indian National Congress-149; Praja Socialist Party-18;
Scheduled Castes Federation-2; Peasants and Workers Party-2; communist Party of India-1 ; Independents-36. Lok Sabha, 1962: (Total No.of seats-26) (Double member constituencies were abolished) Indian National Congress - 25; Lok Sevak Sangha - 1.

Legislative Assembly, 1962: (Total No.of seats - 208;) (Double member constituencies were abolished) Indian National Congress - 138; Swatantra Party- 8; Praja Socialist Party-20; Maharashtra Ekikarana Samiti-6; Lok Sevak Sangha- 4; Communist Party of India-3; Socialist Party-1; Independents-28. Lok Sabha, 1967: (Total No. of seats-27) Indian National Congress-18; Swatantra Party-5; Praja Socialist Party-2; Samyukta Socialist Party-1; Independents-1.

Legislative Assembly, 1967: (Total No.of seats - 216) Indian National Congress -123; Praja Socialist Party-22; Swatantra Party-17; Samyukta Socialist Party-6;
Bharatiya Jan Sangh-4; Communist party of India-1; Independents -41.
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